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How to Make School Gardens 



-1 



HOW TO MAKE 
SCHOOL GARDENS 

A MANUAL FOR TEACHERS 
AND PUPILS 




.^i 



ly^ BT 

H?* d!^hemenway, b. s. 

*" Directof of 
Hartford School of Horticaltnro 



lUuitaM 




K IW YORK 

DOUBLEDAY, PAGE k COMPANY 

1903 



Copyricht, 190} . br 
Doableday, Paee 8c Company 

Pvblished, May, 1903 



CONTENTS 

^ PAGB 

^ Introduction xiii 

CHAPTER 

^ I. How to Make a School Garden . i 



^ 



II. How to Prepare and Fertilize the Land 1 1 

III. Lessons in Garden Work . . 21 

IV. Lessons in Greenhouse Work ; Plant- 

^ ing Seed, Potting, Shifting and 

rA Taking Cuttings . . . .61 

V. Root-Grafting 75 

VI. Budding 91 

VII. School Garden Bibliography . . gy 



5: 

CO 

I 






\^T\^!L 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS 

Marking Oflf the Garden at Hyannis 
(Mass.) Normal School — Second 
Grade Children . . . Frontispiece 

FACING PAGB 

All Staked Ready for Planting ... 4 

Plan for Development of Grounds, Oakdale 

School, East Dedham, Mass. ... 8 

Preparing the Ground, Whittier School, 

Hampton, Va. 14 

71 Gardens, 10 x 170 Feet, National Cash 

Register Company, Dayton, Ohio . . 24 

Receiving Directions 24 

His Own Raising 44 

School-Garden Exhibit, School of Horticulture, 

Hartford, Conn 60 

A School Garden in the Business Centre of 

Cleveland— Rockwell School ... 80 

The Fun of Making a Garden. " The Chil- 
dren Tackled the Soil with Such Weapons 
As They Could Muster " ... 80 

How to Make School Gardens (cut ofE) 



PREFACE 

This little manual has grown out of 
the experience of the author in children's 
garden work, and is the answer to the 
many inquiries which are received from 
various points all over the country from 
persons who are enthusiastic and realize 
the purpose and advantages of the school- 
garden movement, but who have not had 
the agricultural advantages and training 
to understand the best methods of making 
and conducting a garden so as to get good 
results from an agricultural and horticul- 
tural standpoint. It is hoped that this 
little book will be an inspiration to begin- 
ners in the school-garden movement, and 
an aid to those who already have school 
and children's gardens, so that they can 
obtain the best results from agricul- 
tural, esthetic and educational stand- 

xi 



Xll PRBFACB 

points, and so that they can better train 
the head, the heart and the hand. 

The first chapters explain something of 
the development of the school-garden 
movement and how to make a school 
garden, while the remaining chapters are 
lessons in garden work. It is hoped these 
simple lessons will be of value; but, as 
every locality is different and the climatic 
and soil conditions vary, it may be found 
necessary to vary the directions some, 
the crops raised, and the size of the 
gardens, the latter of necessity depending 
upon the size of the grounds. 

H. D. Hbmbnway. 
School of Horticulture, 
Hartford, Conn., 1903. 



INTRODUCTION 

The idea of having a garden connected 
with the school is a very old one. 
Gardening was practised in some European 
schools maxiy years ago, and was carried 
on often for the purpose of increasing the 
salary of the teacher or for furnishing 
products for him. In other schools 
there were botanical gardens where the 
specimens could be studied by the pupils. 
The school-garden movement as it exists 
to-day is of more recent origin, beginning 
about thirty-five years ago. The progress 
has been most rapid in Europe, where 
there are to-day more than one htmdred 
thousand school gardens; France alone 
has more than twenty-eight thousand, and 
in Russia, as in several other countries, no 
school will be accepted by the state to 
receive state funds unless a garden is 

connected with it. In America, the school- 

. • . 
xiu 



XIV INTRODUCTION 

garden movement is of recent origin, but 
it is gaining grotmd rapidly. 

As sixty-five per cent, of our exports 
are products of the farm, it is almost 
alarming to think that so few of our 
children know anything about them. 
One reason why nearly ninety per cent, 
of the successful business men of to-day 
were brotight up on the farm is because 
of the productive industry taught in 
early childhood in farm life. There is no 
kind of training that squares itself for 
all-round development like agriculture. 
The farmers* boys are brought up to use 
their hands as well as their heads, and 
learn quick observation and quick decision, 
which is of great value to them throughout 
their lives. The child's garden certainly 
brings his life more nearly to that of the 
country child than any other form of 
study. As an aid to nature-study there 
is nothing to equal it. It can be used to 
help in nearly every other branch of 
study taught in the schoolroom. The 
practice in measuring and marking out the 



INTRODUCTION XV 

gardens, and in systematically planting 
the seed, gives the child the practical 
mathematics which he so much needs. 
Much language work can be given in 
connection with it; in fact, it can be 
correlated with nearly all the other 
branches, as it furnishes material for 
writing, painting, drawing and geography. 
Even business can be taught, as is done 
at the school gardens at the State Normal 
School at Hyannis, Mass., where the 
products of the gardens are sold, the 
money is taken to the bank and deposited, 
and the children learn the method of 
depositing money and drawing checks. 
The systematic care of tools and the 
systematic order of doing things, and the 
habits of close observation and of reporting 
observations, acquired by the child, will 
form a trait which will be invaluable to 
him throughout life. Where gardens have 
been conducted for several years, long 
enough to make practical tests, it is 
found that the boys having the garden 
work are thirty per cent, more rapid in 



XVI INTRODUCTION 

mental, moral and physical development 
than those not having gardens. The 
school garden tends to develop the best 
traits in the children, and to create in 
them a love for the beautiful. It gives 
play to all their motor activities, 
and shows that results follow causes, 
and is one of the best methods of curing 
them of stealing. They begin to under- 
stand something of ownership and respon- 
sibility, and look more kindly at their 
neighbor's products, and, as they do not 
wish to lose their own, that for which 
they have worked, the value of the 
product of another is more forcibly 
demonstrated to them. The school 
garden can be made especially valuable 
to girls, particularly those in the city, as 
they do not have the same liberties of 
the street as have boys, and are in the 
open air and sunshine all too little for 
good, strong physical development. 



How to Make a School Garden 



CHAPTER I 
How TO Make a School Garden 

PROBABLY no two school gardens 
can be made exactly the same, be- 
cause of the different conditions of 
space and exposures and the difference 
in the surrounding conditions, all of 
which should be taken into considera- 
tion. In making the school garden, 
the esthetic side should not be lost 
sight of, nor should it be the entire 
controlling element; but let the esthetic 
and the agricultural elements harmonize. 
If the grounds are small and the only 
space for a garden is along the fence, 
of course there is no choice; and if this 
is all there is, that should be utilized: 
much good can be accomplished even by 
working in a very small space. In the 
absence of any available land on the 

3 



4 HOW TO MAKB SCHOOL OARDBNS 

school grounds the use of a nearby vacant 
lot can often be obtained. 

For lower grades it probably is as well 
to have a general bed or garden. The 
conditions of every place will have to be 
considered; but where conditions are 
favorable for the individual garden, it 
gives a certain amount of responsibility 
and interest that the general garden does 
not. It shows exactly what the individ- 
ual is doing and helps to develop the 
individuality of the child. Very often, 
too, the excellence of several of these 
individual gardens will inspire those to 
much more careful work who naturally 
are inclined to be a little slack. 

Where possible, it is better to grow 
both v^etables and flowers. This de- 
velops both the esthetic and the prac- 
tical side of the pupil, and soon the child 
who does not love flowers, if there be 
such, will love the flowers that he raises, 
and in so loving them will be uplifted. 
In growing crops, grow common things. 
Those who have plenty of land can grow 



HOW TO MAKE A SCHOOL GARDEN $ 

the things that are tmcommon; but it is 
much better that the child should know 
the common tlungs, the everyday things 
of life, the things about him, than to 
know what grows in Africa or China or 
Japan. After he knows the common 
things he can learn the others, if there 
be time and space. 

If the gardens are to be individual 
gardens, they should be staked out with 
a stake at each comer, which is driven 
securely into the grotmd. One of these 
stakes can be numbered; or, better still, 
place an eighteen-inch nursery label in 
the front centre with the ntmiber upon it. 
It is easier to keep track of the pupils 
by number than by name, especially if 
there are many of them. With individual 
gardens, they may vary from two feet 
square to ten by one htmdred and ninety 
feet, as do the various school gardens now 
in existence in the United States. Where 
the gardens are of large size, it is found 
easier to have them longer than wide. 
If these gardens are open to exposure on 



6 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARPBNS 

all sides, the rows shotdd run either north 
and south or east and west. With the 
north and south method, the sun is per- 
haps more evenly distributed to every 
crop, as it goes down the rows between . 
them as it passes in its journey^ If , 
the rows run east and west, for success 
it is necessary to plant all high-growing 
plants on the north side, so that they will 
not shade the other crops. If there are 
to be several rows of gardens, this will not 
interfere with the other gardens, as the 
walk will be wide enough to take the 
shadow. Do not crowd. It is better to 
grow a few crops well than to try to grow 
many and not succeed. 

It is not generally wise to use toy tools. 
The triangular hoe which strawberry 
growers use is light and will be fotmd 
efficient for all purposes. Any child large 
enough to work in a garden can handle 
a ten- or twelve-tooth rake. It will be 
fotmd very convenient to mark the handles 
of the hoes so that the pupils can measure 
by them. A line is almost indispensable, 



HOW TO MAKE A SCHOOL GARDEN "J 

and sbcnild be long enough to go around 

the entire garden. This can easily be 

made by cutting up a ball of good twine. 

The four-strand 

braided twine is D 

best for this purpose, 

A twelve-inch pot label 

makes a very good 

stake for one end, and ._ 

has the advantage that 11 

it can be numbered ; any I 

strong stick can be II 

utiKzed for the other || 

end. If small crops are 

grown, the hand weeder 

will be found useful, 

although not essential. 

Where the children 

spade up their own 

gardens, the spades 

should be smaller than 

the ordinary garden 

spade. These can be ^b needed tools 

procured, however, tf^-"*"* 

from most local 5:S^SlK- 



8 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

dealers. The land should be thoroughly 
fertilized. 

Before going with a class of pupils into 
the gardens to stake them out, it is well 
to explain what is to be done, and to 
illustrate if possible on a blackboard. If 
the children are able to lay out the gardens 
accurately without assistance, after it 
has been explained to them, they are 
certainly above the average. Few chil- 
dren are able to apply their mathematics, 
although they may be very bright in 
book-work. The walks should be so 
arranged that the gardens are easily 
reached from the entrance, where, if 
there is sufficient land and there are 
several rows, five feet is not too much 
for the walks between the rows of gardens, 
and there should be a walk of from eight- 
een inches to three feet between each 
garden. This, however, is not always 
feasible and can be dispensed with, but 
it is desirable. If the gardens are next to 
a fence, especially a board fence, the tall 
plants should be located there, regardless 



HOW TO MAKE A SCHOOL GARDEN 9 

of the exposure, as the fence would shade 
on the one side and the tall plants on the 
other, if planted in any other place. 



A CORNSR IN THS TOOL ROOM 

With individual gardens, it is well to give 
the children seeds put up in packages, 
with just enough for the row in each 
package. Otherwise there may be a 
waste. Measuring tape, stakes and a 
mallet or hatchet, and sometimes a 
line, are required for marking out the 
garden. Very good stakes can be made 
by cutting up furring strips, whidi can 



lO HOW TO MAKB SCHOOL GARDENS 

be obtained from any lumber dealer. 
These are inexpensive and are strong. 
They should be driven into the ground at 
least one foot. With the garden marked 
out, it is time for the lessons in planting 
to begin. 



How to Prepare and Fertilize 

the Land 



CHAPTER II 

How TO Prepare and Fertilize the 

Land 

Perhaps the most serious problem, 
especially to the city school, after the 
necessary land has been obtained, is, 
How shall we prepare and properly fer- 
tilize it? This is a difficult question to 
answer, as the soil is hardly alike in any 
two places. While fertilizers are usually 
necessary on every soil to some ex- 
tent, tilth is of far greater importance. 
Tilling the soil is to the plant what train- 
ing and schooling is to the child. The 
child and the plant must have proper 
food, to be stire; but that only does not 
develop much of a desirable being. 

If the plot of ground is large enough, 
it should be thoroughly plowed; and, 
where the subsoil is very compact^ the 

^3 



1 



14 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

plow should be followed in the same 
furrow with the subsoil plow. This 
breaks it up, makes it more porous, 
and allows the water to pass through. 
Small lots, too small to be economically 
plowed, should be spaded ; and, where the 
subsoil is impervious, it can be trenched. 
. If the ground is in turf it should be well 
turned and then thoroughly harrowed. 
If the land was not in turf, or if the turf 
is decayed after plowing, it shotild be 
replowed, running the furrows in the 
opposite direction. If spaded, the sod 
should be turned deep. It can again be 
lightly spaded. The aim should be to 
give thorough tillage to obtain all possi- 
ble from the land, and then apply ferti- 
lizers to get more. Tillage sets at work 
the forces which tmlock plant food. Fer- 
tilizers are more useful to the plant on 
well-tilled land. 

FARM MANURES 

The valuable plant food in farm manures 
is not so quickly available as in high-grade 
commercial fertilizers; but they have the 



HOW TO PREPARE AND FERTILIZE LAND 1$ 

additional value of supplying humus, 
which lightens the soil, increasing its 
power to hold water. It also assists in 
liberating the mineral substances in the 
soil. If the manure is coarse, it should 
be rotted to increase its availability 
before appljring. There are three elements 
necessary to supply to the soil: nitrogen, 
potash and phosphoric acid. Farm ma- 
ntires supply all of these, but not always 
in the proportion needed. 

Commercial fertilizers can be bought 
and applied separately or in combination. 
It must always be remembered that they 
are very powerful and should never be 
placed in contact with roots or seeds, but 
should be mixed with the soil. 

Nitrates stimulate the vegetable system 
and tend to produce dark-green foliage. 
The application of too much nitrogen has 
a tendency to make the plant "run to 
leaves'* at the expense of flowers and 
fruit. A lack of nitrogen is shown by 
weak growth of a yellowish-green colour. 
Nitrate of soda and sulfate of ammonia are 



l6 HOW TO MAK£ SCHOOL GARDENS ' 

the forms in which nitrogen is most often 
used. It should be applied in the pro- 
portion of 150 to 300 potmds per acre. 

Potash, among other effects, stimulates 
the production of plump seed and fruit 
and intensifies the color of the bloom. 
A deficiency of potash is shown by a lack 
of fruit and small, often immature, seeds. 
It is best supplied as sulfate and muriate 
of potash and tmleached wood-ashes. 
The latter often has a chemical effect on 
heavy land to some degree the same as 
lime. Sulfate and muriate of potash 
are applied 200 to 400 pounds to the 
acre; wood-ashes, 500 to 1,500 pounds 
to the acre. 

Phosphoric acid aids in developing 
pltunp seeds. It is applied in bone com- 
potmds and fossil phosphates, as South 
Carolina and Florida rock. The applica- 
tion is from 200 to 400 potmds* of treated 
rock per acre. Many fertilizer dealers 
make what they call complete fertilize^ 
by mixing the three required elements, 

* Made available with sulfuric acid. 



HOW TO PREPARE AND FERTILIZE LAND 1 7 

If the place be §niall, one of these com- 
plete fertilizers wotild be more convenient 
than for one to try to mix them. 

When to apply depends on the need 
of the plant. Plants are most benefited 
when they receive extra nourishment 
in the early stages of their growth. 
For this reason it is often well to give 
the land an application of farm ma- 
nure and to apply some complete 
commercial fertilizer in the row. The 
fertilizer should, as a rule, be applied just 
before the crops are to be planted. It 
should be well harrowed into the soil. 
The commercial fertilizer acts as a starter, 
being quickly available, while the farm 
manure carries the crop through the 
season, the plant food in it being more 
slowly available. 

Kind of fertilizers to be used depends 
mainly on two things, viz., the condition 
of the soil and the crop to be grown. 
Generally speaking, sandy soils respond 
most freely to the application of fertilizers. 
When possible to obtain it, it is best to 



1 8 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

use a farm manure, on account of the 
physical help to the soil in aiding it to 
retain moisture. An application of ten 
cords to the acre will cover the land 
one-fotirth of an inch. This is a fair 
application, although market gardeners 
often use more than double that amoimt. 
A little additional commercial fertilizer 
in the row will be helpful on the start. 
Sandy soils are most likely to be deficient 
in nitrates, as the latter are soluble and 
are washed through such soils. On heavy 
soils also farm manures tend to lighten 
them. The use of lime on such soils 
(those which crack upon drying) increases 
the growth and healthfulness of plants by 
improving the physical condition of the 
soil and sets free tmavailable plant food. 
Wood-ashes also aid in this, besides 
supplying the potash. The lime should 
be used fine, from five to ten barrels per 
acre. For light, spongy soils, high-grade 
commercial fertilizers are as good as any. 
If the crop to be grown is an early matur- 
ing one, commercial fertilizers are best, 



HOW TO PREPARE AND FERTILIZE LAND 1 9 

as farm manures are not early available. 
For medium and late maturing crops 
farm manures are much the best. The 
whole problem of manuring is a local one, 
and is best determined by experiment. 

Water is necessary for the assimilation 
of food. If the plants have plenty of 
food and no water, it is of no value to 
them. Tillage aids in keeping the water 
supply constant by preventing the evapo- 
ration of moisture by the sim when the 
weather is dry and by allowing the top- 
soil to dry out and get air when wet. 

Plants to succeed must have food and 
care; the most important is care, and 
care is largely tillage. 



Lessons in Garden Work 



CHAPTER III 

Lessons in Garden Work 

The lessons in this chapter are given 
for gardens twenty-five feet long and 
ten feet wide, with rows running east 
and west, with the exception of Lesson I, 
which garden runs east and west with 
the rows north and south. They can, 
however, be adapted to any size and 
shape. Before beginning with the chil- 
dren, the use of the note-books, tools, etc., 
should be explained to them. Note-books 
can be made, if a quantity is required, as 
cheaply as they can be bought. A note- 
book Sj4 ^7 4% inches makes a very- 
convenient size for the pocket. The num- 
ber can be on the outside. The first page 
can be rvded for the month, day, attend- 
ance and weather report, and the last 
pages nded for the month and day and for 

23 



^4 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

the report of all the diflEerent crops. The 
second page should be reserved for a 
diagram of the garden. These lessons 
can be adapted to any method. 



RECEIVING DIRECTIONS 



Lesson I 

Plant one row of potatoes five feet from 
the west end. Dig a furrow three inches 
deep and plant the pieces* about one 
foot apart, beginning at the line. Cover 
at least two inches with mellow soil and 
pat down with the back of hoe. 

Plant, two fe^ east of potatoes, one 
row of cabbage seed in hills two feet apart. 
Sow five or six seeds in each hill. Make 
the hill by loosening the soil with the hoe 
and removing about one inch of soil. 
Cover the seed one-half inch with fine 
soil and make it firm over the seed. 

Plant, five feet from east end, one row 
of lettuce. Mark out the row about one- 
half inch deep and sow the seed one to two 
inches apart. Cover with fine soil one- 
fotirth inch and press it down. 

Plant, one foot east of lettuce, one row 
of radishes. Mark out the same as for 

* The potato tubers are cut into pieces of one or 
two eyes each. 

as 



26 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

lettuce. Cover one-fourth inch with fine 
soil and press down. Use your line in 
marking each row. Measure with hoe 
handle. 



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Lesson II 

Rake the south end of garden six feet, 
breaking up the lumps, leaving the sur- 
face level with the contour of the land. 

Plant, three feet from south end, one 
row of lettuce. Measure each side care- 
fully, run the line across and make a mark 
or furrow about one-half inch deep and 
sow the seed one to two inches apart. 
Cover with fine soil one-fourth inch and 
press down with the back of the hoe. 

Plant, one foot north of lettuce (four 
feet from south end), one row of beets. 
Make a f tirrow or mark one inch deep and 
sow the seed one to two inches apart. 
Cover with fine soil three-fourths of an 
inch and make it firm over the seed. 

Plant, one foot north of beets (five feet 
from south end), one row of radishes. 
Mark as for lettuce, sow the seed one 
inch apart and cover with fine soil one- 
fourth to one-half inch and press dowiu 

a8 



Lesson III 

Set out, ten feet from south end, one 
row of lettuce plants one foot apart. Set 
them in the ground the same depth that 
they are growing. Be careful and not 
disturb the roots. If the soil is hard, 
loosen it with the hoe and set the plants 
with the hands. Make a hole for the 
plant with the right hand, lower the plant 
into it with the left and press the earth 
firmly about the roots with both hands. 
Level the land with the rake before setting 
the lettuce plants. 

Level and rake south and west walks. 

Dig a hole in the north end or centre of 
the garden, raking the lumps into it and 
level off. 

Be careful about measuring. 



99 



Lesson IV 

Dig a hole in the centre of north end of 
garden and rake into it all coarse ma- 
terial that will not break up, leaving the 
garden and walks smooth and looking 
well. 

Plant, five feet from north end, one 
row of dwarf horticultural shell beans. 
Measure carefully, put the line across 
and make a furrow one and one-half 
inches deep. Put the beans two to three 
inches apart. Plant out to edges of the 
garden, cover with fine soil one to one 
and one-half inches and press down. 

Plant, seven feet from north end, one 
row of Valentine Beans, same as the 
others. 

Loosen the soil with the hoe or weeder 
between the rows already planted, if the 
seed is up. 



30 



Lesson V 

Plant one row of sweet com in north end 
of garden on the line. Make a fturow 
three inches deep, sprinkle one-fourth 
pint of commercial fertilizer along the row 
and hoe it into the soil. Drop three 
kernels every six inches, beginning at 
the line. Cover with fine soil two inches 
and press down. 

Plant, two and one-half feet from the 

4 

north end, one row of com the same as the 
other. 

Plant, nine feet from the north end, one 
row of radish seed, same as in Lesson I. 

Set out, eight feet from the south end, 
one row of tomato plants. Set one Golden 
Dwarf Champion two feet from the west 
side ; three feet east of this set one Ford- 
shooks's First ; and three feet east of that 
set one Dwarf Champion. Set the plants 
one to two inches deeper than they are 
growing in the pot and press the loose soil 

31 



32 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

firmly about the ball of earth. Dig the 
hole for the plant with the hoe. 

Leave the walks and gardens smooth, 
free from weeds and looking well. 



Lesson VI 

Set out one row of pansy plants in the 
south end of the garden on the line. Put 
them two feet apart, beginning at the 
stake, and set them the same as lettuce 
in Lesson II. Between each pair of pansy 
plants set one verbena plant the same way. 

Hoe over all walks, between all rows 
and where nothing is planted. Pull all 
weeds in the rows. Leave the garden and 
walks smooth, free from weeds and look- 
ing well. 



33 



Lesson VII 

Plant twelve feet from the north end, 
and two and one-half feet from the west 
side of the garden, one hill of watermelon 
seeds. 

Plant one hill of muskmelon seeds two 
and one-half feet from east side and 
twelve feet from north end. To make a 
hill, dig a hole one foot in diameter and 
four to six inches deep; fill this hole to 
within one inch of the top with a mixture* 
of equal parts of well-rotted manure, 
sand and soil to furnish a light soil so 
the plants can get a quick start. Scatter 
the seeds all over the hill, cover with fine 
soil one inch and press it down. 

Plant, six feet from the south end, one 
row of radishes, same as lettuce in Lesson I. 

Hoe between all rows and hoe up the 
weeds in the south and west walks. PuU 

* In sandy soil only the mantire is necessary. 

34 



LESSONS IN GARDEN WORK 35 

every weed in the rows and leave the 
gardens looking well. 

Thin the lettuce to two inches apart, 
transplanting enough to fill out the row. 

Pick flowers and pull radishes and 
lettuce if ready. 



Lesson VIII 

Hoe between all rows and hoe over the 
south and west walks. 

Plant, one foot from the south end, 
one row of Dianthus pinks. Put two or 
three seeds every eight inches, beginning 
at the line. Have the ground soft by 
hoeing deep. 

Two feet from south end plant one row 
of asters eight inches apart, the same as 
the pinks. 

Pull all weeds in the rows and leave a 
soil mulch over the whole garden. Use 
the weeder near the plants. 

Pick and kill all potato beetles. 

Pick all flowers and pull the radishes 
and lettuce that are ready. 



36 



Lesson IX 

Hoe between all rows and hoe up the 
weeds in the south and west walks. Pull all 
weeds in the rows and leave a soil mulch* 
over the whole garden, using the weeder 
near the small plants. 

Set out, eleven feet from the south 
end, one row of lettuce plants eight inches 
apart. Set them the same as in Lesson II. 
Take the plants from the seed-lettuce row, 
taking out every alternate one, beginning 
with the second. Take them up carefully 
with the comer of the hoe, with soil on 
the roots of each. 

On the north side of each tomato plant, 
drive down a stake about four inches 
from the plant and tie the plants to them 
carefully. 

* A soil mtilch is a loose condition of the top soil 
for an inch or two. It acts as a blanket, preventing 
rapid evaporation. It also tends to check the 
germination of weeds. It is essential to good, 
healthy, rapid growth. 

37 



38 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

Plant, five feet from south end, one 
row of radishes same as lettuce in Lesson I. 

Sift ashes* and Paris green over the 
melons. 

Pick flowers, and pull radishes and let- 
tuce, if ready. 

* This is prepared by mixing thoroughly one 
teaspoonf td of Paris green with two quarts of wood- 
a^es. Just a very Httle is sifted over the plant. 



Lesson X 

Hoe between all rows and over the 
south and west walks. Pull every weed 
in the rows and leave a soil mulch over 
the whole garden. 

Thin out the com, leaving one stalk 
every six inches. 

Thin the beets to two inches apart and 
take home for greens those pulled out. 

Sift ashes and Paris green over the 
melons. 

Pick flowers, and pull radishes and 
lettuce, if ready. 



39 



Lesson XI 

Hoe between all rows and over the 
south and west walks. Pull every weed 
in the rows and leave a soil mulch over 
the whole garden. 

Sift ashes and Paris green over the 
melons. 

Plant, ten feet from south end, one row 
of Big Boston Lettuce, same as lettuce in 
Lesson I. 

Plant, nine feet from north end,- one 
row Hartford Bronzed Lettuce, same as 
in Lesson I. 

Pick flowers, and pull radishes and 
lettuce, if ready. 



40 



Lesson XII 

Hoe between all rows and over the 
south and west walks. Ptill every weed 
in the rows and leave a soil mulch over 
the whole garden. 

Make a diagram of garden on page two. 

Pick flowers, and pull radishes, beets 
and lettuce, if ready. 

GRAINS 

Grain is the term applied to the fruit of 
cereal plants or to the plants themselves. 
The fruit is a small, hard seed and is borne 
in spikes or ears. The grains are wheat, 
oats, rye, barley, buckwheat, flax and com 
(maize). To preserve grains for school- 
room use it is best to pull them up when 
they are matured, but just as they are 
ready to turn yellow. Two or three 
stools should be bunched together, tied in 
several places to prevent breaking, and 
thoroughly dried. In this condition, if 

41 



42 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

kept from mice, they will keep several 
years. 

Wheat is a grass closely related to 
barley and rye. It has a dense foiir- 
sided spike, and grains longitudinally 
furrowed on one side, turgid on the other. 
Some varieties have awns or beards; 
one being planted in autimm, the other 
in spring. From it comes the principal 
breadstuff of the civilized world. A grain 
in weight was originally derived from a 
plump grain of wheat. 

Wheat was introduced into China 2,700 
B. C. 

Oats differ from other grains in mode 
of flowering, having panicles instead of 
spikes. Used in human food and much 
used for horses. Often cut **in the milk" 
for a fodder crop. 



Lesson XIII 

Hoe between all rows and over the 
south and west walks. Pull all weeds 
and leave a soil mtdch over entire garden. 
Thin out melons, leaving only three good 
plants to a hill. 

Re-tie tomato plants where necessary. 

Pick flowers and string beans, and pull 
beets, lettuce and radishes, if ready. 

GRAINS 

Rye differs from wheat in that the 
ear bends down while in wheat it is erect. 
It is taller than wheat, has both winter 
and spring varieties, and comes next in 
nutritive value. Rye makes a black 
bread and is the chief breadstuff of 
sections of Europe. A coffee is made 
from its roasted grains. The straw is 
valuable for mats, etc. 

Barley resembles both wheat and 
rye, but has longer awns, and it retains 
closely its husks. It has a wider leaf and 

43 



44 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

a more yellowish-green color while grow- 
ing. It can be grown over the widest 
latitude of any grain. The awns are 
barbed and poison persons of a delicate 
skin. It has two-, four- and six-rowed 
varieties. 

Buckwheat is a dicotyledonous plant; 
flowers white, fruit a triangular seed used 
much for poultry and for buckwheat flour. 

Flax is grown for both fiber and seed. 
The fiber comes from the stalks and is 
made into linens. The seed is used for 
poultices (flaxseed poultices), and is 
pressed to obtain linseed oil — ^the oil of 
paint. 

Indian Corn is taller than the other 
grains. Flowers monoecious naked ovules 
enclosed in a husk. Of great value as a 
food for cattle. Much used as human 
food, as cornstarch and hominy. There 
are many varieties. It Ukes hot weather 
to grow. 



HIS OWN RAISINO 



Lesson XIV 

Hoe between all rows and over south 
and west walks. Pull all weeds. 

Plant, five feet from south end, one row 
of beets, same as in Lesson I. 

Thin all small lettuce to four inches 
apart, transplanting where necessary to 
fill out the row. 

Pick flowers and string beans, and pull 
beets, lettuce and radishes, if ready. 

WEEDS* 

Purslane (pers'-lan),t Portulaca oleracea 
{pdr-iu-ld'ka ol-e-rd^cea). This is an 
herbaceous plant, a very troublesome 
weed all over the United States and parts 
of Europe. The very fine black seed do 
not germinate imtil the weather is hot. 

* It is intended that the teacher should have a 
good specimen of the weed in the class-room while 
explaining it. If possible, also have a sample of 
the seed in a vial. Be sure to have all parts — ^roots, 
stem, leaf, flower. 

t Latin names should always be given so the 
pupil will know them when he hears them. It is 
not necessary for the child to learn them. 

45 



46 HOW TO IfAKB SCHOOL GAIU>BNS 

It then grows rapidly. As the stems and 
leaves are so fleshy, the plant will often 
mature its seed even after pulled up. It 
easily roots at the joints. The small 
yellow flowers open only in stmlight and 
remain open but a few hours. The seed 
has very great vitality, being able to 
. remain in soil many years and then grow 
when an opportunity comes. The plant 
is used in salads, for greens (as a pot herb), 
in pickles and for garnishing. It is very 
good. It is often called pussley. DiflBcult 
to kill, it should be uprooted and removed. 
Best time to kill it is when it is a day or 
two old, by hoeing it up. 



Lesson XV . 

Hoe between all rows and over the 
south and west walks. Pull all weeds. 

Plant, two and one-half feet from south 
end, one row of radishes, same as in 
Lesson I. 

Cut out all com-suckers, leaving only 
one stalk every six or eight inches. 

Pick all flowers, string beans and 
tomatoes, and pull beets, radishes and 
lettuce, if ready. 

Make out a list of what you have taken 
home. 

Complete diagrams. 

Be sure lettuce is thinned. 

Purslane* 

Smartweed f.* Persicary, peach-wort, 
heartsease, smart grass, spotted knot- 
weed, knot-grass, lady's-thumb. Polygo- 
num Persicaria {fio-lig'-o-num per-si-kd^" 

♦ Review weeds each lesson in class-room and 
point out same in gardens tmtil pupils become 
familiar with them. 

t Always have the weed present. 

47 



Noxth 



, ^ ■..,.,.■ j;^^ 



1± 



± 



JHfilaos 

.JLrltii«.E(Brf4., 



South 

TirsrYeaft BoyS'CarcJenS, 

Ochool oF Harrieuifure,Hartranl,C«in . 



LESSONS IN GARDEN WORK 49 

ri-d) . This weed grows from one to three 
feet high ; has peach-like leaves with dark 
spots on them. The seed is very shiny 
and black. It is a very troublesome weed 
in the United States and parts of Europe. 
Grows most abundantly in damp seasons 
or in moist places. There are many 
kinds of knot-grass. This one is closely 
related to the Prince's-feather. Joints 
of stems always swollen. Flowers white 
or pink. The weed is used in medicine. 

Balled only by pulling up, as it will 
sucker if broken off. Best time to kill 
it in the garden is when it is very young. 



Lesson XVI 

Hoe between all rows and over the 
south and west walks. Pull all weeds. 

Plant, three and one-half feet from 
south end, one row of radish seed. 

Pick flowers, string beans and tomatoes, 
and pull all beets, radishes and lettuce 
that are ready. 

Ragweed * : Roman wormwood, hog- 
weed, bitterweed: Ambrosia Artemisiae- 
folia (Am-bro^zia Ar-ie-miz'i-fd'le'^-a). This 
ragweed is a very troublesome weed. 
It grows along roadsides and in waste 
places everywhere. Its height is one 
to four feet. Much branched; leaves 
vary, generally much divided or com- 
pound. The juice is bitter. The flowers 
are greenish, with stamens and pistils in 
different flowers on the same plant. 

The pollen from this weed is said to 
cause hay fever, so some persons have to 

♦ Always have the weed present. 

50 



' 



LESSONS IN GARDEN WORK 5 1 

go to the mountains or places where it 
does not grow during its blossoming 
period. It produces a very peculiar irri- 
tating odor. Killed by pulling up or 
breaking off. Best time to kill it is when 
very yotmg. 



Lesson XVTI 

Pull all weeds. Pick string and shell 
beans, if ready, and pull up the vines. 
Pull all the beets. 

Set out one row of Hartford Bronzed 
Head Lettuce plants seven feet from north 
end, and one row Big Boston Lettuce 
plants four feet from south end, setting 
the plants one foot apart. Take lettuce 
plants from rows in the garden, taking 
alternate plants. 

Plant, five feet from north end, one 
row of radish seed. 

Pick flowers and tomatoes, and pull 
radishes and lettuce, if ready. 

Pigweed* : Lamb's quarters, baconweed. 
Chenopodium Album {ke-no-po'dium a/'- 
bum). This is one of the commonest of 
weeds, growing two to seven feet high. 
Stems nearly white or mealy, also the tmder 
surface of the leaves sometimes varies some 

♦Always have the weed present. 

52 



LESSONS IN GARDEN WORK 53 

according to place where it grows. Some- 
times used as a pot herb (for greens). 
Pigs are fond of it. Easily killed by 
pulling up. Best time to kill it is when 
very yotmg. 



Lesson XVIII 

Hoe between all rows and over the 
south and west walks. Pull all weeds. 

Pick flowers and tomatoes, if ready. 

Rough Pigweed*: Green Amaranth, 
pigweed. Atnaranius retro flexus {Am-a- 
ranftus re^tro-fleks-us) . This is a very 
common weed in cultivated land. Notice 
the hairy stems. It grows from one to five 
feet high and has a large thick panicle of 
small green flowers. It belongs to same 
family as the cockscomb and the thick 
Prince' s-feather. It is a troublesome weed. 
Best time to kill it is by cultivation when 
very yotmg. 

* Always have the weed present. 



54 



Lesson XIX 

Pull all weeds and leave a soil mtilch 
over the whole garden. 

Thin beets to three inches apart, trans- 
planting where necessary to fill out the 
row. 

Turn melon vines into garden and pinch 
off the ends. 

Plant one row of radish seed six feet 
from the north end. 

Clean south and west walks and pick 
flowers, lettuce and tomatoes that are 
ready. 

Wild Carrot*: Queen's lace handker* 
chief. Daucus Carota (dau'-ktis ka-ro'ta). 
This beautiful flowering weed is so trouble- 
some that in some places there is a law 
requiring it to be cut to prevent its going 
to seed. From this plant our common 
carrot has developed by cultivation. It 

* Always have the weed present, roots, stem and 
flower. 

55 



•' •» J . " • 



56 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

has some medical properties. The only 
way to kill it is to ptill it up. Best done 
after a rain, when the ground is moist. 
Never allow it to seed. • 






♦ * . • w 



« 9 



Lesson XX 

Pull all weeds and leave a soil mulch 
over the entire garden. 

Run the line across one foot south of 
the garden and trim off the verbenas 
with the turf cutter. 

Have tomatoes tied and south and west 
walks free from weeds. 

Pick flowers, tomatoes and lettuce, if 
ready. 

Be sure garden and diagrams are com- 
plete. 

Planting : Common plantin, hen plant, 
broad-leaved plantin. Plantago Major 
{plan4a'-go ntd^'jor). This is a very com- 
mon dooryard weed all over the United 
States and Europe. It does not die 
in winter, but the root lives year after year. 
The ribbed leaves, when bound on in- 
flamed surfaces, have a soothing effect. 

♦ Always have the weed present. 

57 



58 HOW TO MAKB SCHOOL GARDENS 

The stem is channeled on the ujjper surface. 
The flowers form a greenish spike. Best 
killed by pulling up or cutting oflE below 
the stuface of the soil. 



Lesson XXI 

Pull all weeds and leave a soil mulch 
over the garden. Have south and west 
walks free from weeds and looking well. 

Pick flowers, tomatoes, radishes and 
lettuce, if ready. 

Pick a little com, leaving the largest 
ears. Make record of produce taken 
home. 

FOR THE EXHIBIT 

Pull a bimch of the best six beets and 
best six radishes. Wash thoroughly and 
tie neatly. 

Cut and wash very carefully the best 
head of Big Boston and Hartford Bronzed 
Head Lettuce. 

Pick the best six tomatoes, the best 
watermelon and muskmelon and best two 
or three ears of com. Pull the husks down 
on the com to show the ear. 

Pick flowers and arrange them in 

59 



6o HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

tumblers, which you must bring from 
hom^. 

Arrange these things on the table in 
sets — ^vegetables, fruit, flowers. 

Narrow Leaved Plantin*: Hen plant, 
rib-grass, ripple-grass, English plantin: 
Plantago Lanceolata {plan-ta' -go lan-se^ 
o-laf ta) . This weed is much like the broad- 
leaved plantin, with narrower leaves, and 
the flowers grow on longer stems. It is 
mostly hairy. It is killed the same as the 
other one. 

♦ Always have the weed present. 



I 



Lessons in Greenhouse Work 



CHAPTER rv 

Lessons in Greenhouse Work, Plant- 
ing THE Seed, Pottjng, Shifting 
AND Taking Cuttings. 



While it is not possible, and perhaps 
not feasible, for many schools to have 
a greenhouse connected with them, it 
is possible to do all of the things 
given in this chapter right in the 
ordinary school-room. The window- 
box or the window ^ 

garden is the 
teacher's green- 
house. It may not 
be as convenient, 
but it may be of 
more value to the 
child. Children who 
have everything at . 
their command in V 
schools are likely to ^ 
be discouraged when 



64 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

they attempt to do things at home, because 
they have not the things which they con- 
sider absolutely necessary. Several of 
the greenhouse architects now have on 
the market a very fine window garden 
which can be easily put on any window. 
It might be well to take up one or two 
lessons with the study of the seed before 
beginning the following lessons. The 



sieves used can be easily made from one- 
half-inch mesh wire netting. A con- 
venient size is twelve by twenty inches and 
four inches deep. For Lesson II the one- 
quarter-inch wire mesh should be used. 

The fioiu: sieve, for covering seed, can 
be obtained from local dealers. 



Lesson I 

For Planting Seed: Take one part of 
soil, two parts of sand. Mix well and sift. 
Put the Itimps in the bottom of the shallow 
box, which is called a Hat. Fill it nearly 
one-half full of lumps or broken pots for 
drainage. Then fill the flat with the fine 
soil and sow the seed rather thinly broad- 
cast, one seed to every one-half inch of 
space. Cover about one-eighth inch by 
sifting soil on through a flour sieve. Press 
down evenly and firmly with a block or 
board. Mark the kind of seed and date 
on a label and place it in one comer of the 
flat. Take the flat to the greenhouse 
walk and sprinkle very carefully till wet, 
then place on the heating-pipes imder the 
bench.* Coarse seeds should be pressed 
into the soil before covering. 

♦ These, when treated thus, must be watched 
very carefully, and brought to light just as soon 
as the seed begins to germinate. 



6s 



Lesson II 

For Planting Fine Seed: Take one 
part soil, two parts sand. Mix well and 
sift with a one-quarter-inch mesh sieve. 
Put the liimps in the bottom of the flat or 
seed pan, filling it about one-half full of 
lumps or broken pots for drainage. Then 
fill it with fine soil, scraping off the top 
level. Sow the seed carefully over the 
surface as evenly as possible. Press the 
soil down firmly (not hard) without 
covering the seed. Place the flat or seed 
pan into a larger water-tight box, filling 
the latter with water. Let the seed stand 
in the water until the soil is wet through 
from beneath. Remove it and place on 
the heating-pipes or in a warm place. 
When dry, water from beneath as at first 
until seeds are well up. This method is 
used for all fine seeds, as tobacco, petunia, 
Antirrhinimis (snap dragons) and the like. 



66 



Lesson III 

To Pot Seedlings: Mix one part soil, 
one part sand, one part well-rotted manure, 
and sift. Use one-and-one-half- to two- 
and-one-fourth-inch pots. Have them 
clean and dip in water* before using. Place 
a piece of broken pot in the bottom of the 
pot for drainage. Fill the pot one-third 
full of soil, then take the plant, hold it 
with the left hand in the centre of pot and 
fill in soil evenly on all sides. Press the 
soil down firmly, leaving it one-fourth to 
one-half inch below the top of the pot. 
Place pots in a flat, water, and put in 
partial shade for a day or two. Mark 
the kind of plant on a label and place in one 
pot of each flat. To lift the plants, place 
the trowel or stick straight down beside 
the edge of the flat till below the roots, 

* As pots are porous, if they are not wet they 
will absorb water from the soil that the roots should 
have. With new pots this may mean the difference 
between success and failure. 

67 



68 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

then press the handle down, lifting the 
plants. Shake off the soil carefully and 
pot or ** prick out " a trifle lower than they 
grew. 



Lesson IV 

To Shift or Repot: Mix two quarts of 
sand, four quarts of soil, four quarts of 
well-rotted manure, sift and add one- 
half pint of fine ground bone and mix 
thoroughly. The pots are prepared the 
same as for potting, by wetting and 
placing drainage in them. The plant is 
removed from the pot by inverting it 
and rapping the rim of the pot lightly 
upon the edge of the bench. Crumble 
a little earth from the upper edge, 
remove the drainage, and cnmible away 
the lower edge slightly. Put in enough 
soil over the drainage to bring the 
"ball of earth" about three-fourths of 
an inch below the top of the pot. Place 
the plant in the centre of the pot and fill 
in soil around the ball of earth, pressing 
firmly about the edges. Fill the pot 
to one-half inch below the top, press 
firmly, and rap lightly on the bench to 

69 



70 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

settle the soil. Water, and place in 
partial shade for a day or two. Never 
fill in soil above the first leaves of the 
plant. Use pots about one inch larger 
than those from which the plants are 
removed. 



Lesson V 

To Prick Out Seedlings: Mix the soil 
the same as for potting (Lesson III) . Put 
the lumps in the bottom of the flat 
and fill it the same as for sowing seed 
(Lesson I). Begin at the left-hand comer 
farthest from you. With a finger or a 
dibble make a hole and lower the plant 
into it, pressing the soil firmly about the 
roots. Put the plants two inches apart 
each way and the outside rows close to the 
edge of the flat. Keep the rows straight 
and put the same number in each flat. 
Mark the kind of plant on a label and place 
one in each flat. 



71 



Lesson VI 

To Take Soft Wood Cuttings*: Select 
the younger growth of the plants where 
the shoots are pretty well matured so that 
they are not too soft. They should break 
straight off when bent in the shape of the 
letter '*U/* If they bend only, they are 
likely to be too soft. If they split, they 
are too hard. The tops of the shoots 
generally make the best cuttings. Cut 
them two or three inches long. Then 
trim off the side leaves and, if the top 
leaves are large, cut them in two so that 
they will not evaporate too much moisture. 
They should then be inserted in clean, 
sharp sand at least half their length and 
wet thoroughly. For the school room or 
home, a deep plate or a shallow dish con- 
taining about two inches of sand can be 
used, and, after the cuttings are in, it 
should be placed upon a radiator. The 

* Coletas, geraniums and such plants. 

72 



LESSONS IN GREENHOUSE WORK 73 

sand should be kept moist, and the sun 
should not strike the cuttings too strongly, 
althoi^h they should have a strong light. 



They will need air. It is better to have 
the sand warmer than the air. The cut 
at the bottom of the cuttings should be 
made with a clean sharp knife, and 
should be made just below a node. 



Root-Grafting 



CHAPTER V 

Root-Grafting 

For root-grafting it is only necessary 
to have a sharp knife, apple or pear seed- 
lings and the scions. It is fine handicraft 
work, and can be done anywhere, in the 
schoolroom or at any convenient place. 
The seedlings can be piirchased of any 
nurseryman for from six to fifteen dollars 
per thousand, and the scions will be 
inexpensive. One seedling will make from 
one to six root grafts. The grafting- 
cloth is perhaps the best thing to use for 
tying up the seedlings. It should be cut 
in strips about three-eighths of an inch 
wide for tying in the grafts. Any part of 
the root over three-sixteenths of an inch 
in thickness can be utilized in root-grafting. 
It is better to be six inches long, although 
not necessary. It is well to have the 
scions four to six inches in length. The 

77 



78 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 



roots should be thoroughly washed before 
beginning to graft, to remove all grit. 
Shoe knives of good quality make excel- 
lent knives for this work and are inex- 
pensive. 



L 




AN ECONOMICAL KNIFE FOR ROOT-GRAFTING 



Lesson I 

For Grafting-Cloth: Melt four parts of 
tinbleached resin and one part of beef tallow 
over a slow fire. Spread this evenly over 
cotton cloth with a brush or stick. Tack 
the cloth to a board or box, which 
should be warm. When cool, roll 
up and keep in a cool moist place 
until needed. 

For Scions: Cut the ends of branches 
or twigs of desired varieties. Cut off only- 
wood of the previous summer's growth. 
Label carefully and place (lying flat) in 
sand or moss and store in a cool moist 
place. Scions can be cut any time, when 
not frozen, after the leaves fall in autumn 
until the first of April. 

For Grafting-Wax: Melt together four 
parts of tmbleached resin, two parts of 
beeswax and one part of beef tallow over a 
slow fire. When thoroughly melted, cool 
slightly and pour into cold water. Work 

79 



So HOW TO MAKB SCHOOL GAkDBNS 

with the hands (as molasses candy) until 
it is of a buff color, then roll in sticks and 
wrap in oiled paper. It can be kept in a 
cool moist place indefinitely. 



^ SCHOOL GARDEN 



Lesson II 

For Tongue-Grafting: Take the seed- 
ling roots, which are called stocks, and 
the scions from the boxes of moss 
or sand and wash them. With a sharp 
knife or pnming-shears remove all 
the root branches which are three- 
sixteenths of an inch in diameter 
or more. Each piece will make a root 
graft. Make a long, clean, slanting cut 
on the upper end of each root and select 
a scion of about the same size and make a 
similar cut on the lower end of it. Cut 
scions about four to six inches long. See 
that the slanting cuts on the scion and 
stock are clean, smooth and match each 
other. Cut a little tongue in each by 
cutting out a small wedge-shaped chip. 
Press the stock and scion together firmly 
so that the tongues dovetail together. If 
they do not fit well, take them apart and 
try again. Be sure the inner barks of roots 

8i 



82 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 



and scions coincide. If the scion is 
smaller than the stock, carry it to one 



1 z 

i-distAf end 



UScien 










u 



j-^jttofWhj dorti 



L— -^K»cK 



TONGUE-GRAFTING 



edge so the inner barks come together. 
Bind firmly with warm grafting-cloth cut 
into strips about three-eighths of an inch 
wide and three to five inches long. Begin 



ROOT-GRAFTING 83 

below the union and wind spirally till 
above the cut. If the distal end (top end) 
of the scion is cut, cover it with a little 
grafting-wax. Tie in bundles, marking 
the kind which is the same as the scions. 
Pack in damp moss or sand and store in a 
cool moist place till spring. 



Lesson III 

For Saddle Grafting: Make a clean cut 
about one-half inch long on each side of 



1 2 

...diifcifJBncI) 



>'Scion 



bron\ma\{fini) 



•slbefC 



< jfOJllflJ ciiAm 




SADDLE GRAFTING 



84 



ROOT-GRAFTING 85 

the stock; then make a corresponding 
V-shaped cut in the scion so that they 
match. If the two do not match per- 
fectly, try imtil they do. Have the scion 
about four inches long and place it on the 
stock so the cambium layers of stock and 
scion coincide. Bind firmly with warm 
grafting-cloth about three-eighths of an 
inch wide, winding spirally from below 
up over the imion. Store in damp moss 
or sand in a cool moist place till spring. 
Cover distal end of scion with grafting- 
wax, if cut. 



Lesson IV 

For Plain Whip-Grafting: Make long 
slanting cuts on the proximal end of scion 



1 2 

•disU tnd 



.4Cion 






•StScK 







doU» 



PLAIN WHIP-GRAFTING 
86 



ROOT-GRAFTING 



and on the distal end of stock that just 
match each other. Place them so the cam- 




VENEER GRAFTING 



bium layers of the stock and the scion 
coincide, and bind firmly with grafting- 
cloth. 



88 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

For Veneer Grafting: Remove a shav- 
ing of bark through the cambium layer, 
about one inch long, from both the stock 
and the scion. Make a short transverse 
cut at the base of each vertical cut. Have \ 

the cambium layers of the stock and the 
scion coincide. Bind firmly with grafting- 
cloth, and store in damp moss or sand in 
a cool moist place till spring. 

A modified form of veneer grafting, 
called approach grafting, is used on plants 
in leaf. In this case the stocks and scions 
remain on their own roots imtil tmion 
takes place. 



Lesson V 

For Planting Root Grafts: Prepare 
the land by plowing or spading thoroughly 
and harrow or rake it so the surface is 
nearly smooth. -If the groimd be rich, no 
fertilizer is needed. Stretch a line where 
the first row is desired. Press the spade 
or dibble into the ground beneath the 
line. Move it slightly to increase the size 
of the opening. Remove the tool and 
insert the root graft, placing it in the soil 
well below the imion, to encoiurage adven- 
titious roots from the scion and to prevent 
adventitious shoots from the stock. Press 
the soil firmly about it with the heel or 
dibble and continue, putting in the root 
grafts every six or eight inches, under the 
line. Put the rows four feet apart if to 
be cultivated with a horse and three feet 
if by hand only. Two persons can work 
to the best advantage, one using the spade 
or dibble while the other carries the 

89 



90 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

bundle of root grafts and inserts them. 
Hardy cuttings are planted the same way. 
If the row be long, the line should be 
pinned down in several places to keep it 
straight. 



Budding 



CHAPTER VI 

Budding 

For this work it is best to grow a few 
peach trees from the seeds, which have 
been saved the previous year and planted 
either in the fall or cracked and planted 
in the spring. By September, the trees 
will be large enough and ready to bud. 
A few days before budding is to take place 
it is well to go about and trim off the leaves 
for five or six inches from the ground. 
This should not be done very long before- 
hand, as it will harden up the wood too 
rapidly. Budding should take place when 
the bark slips freely. Bud sticks should 
be cut from some well-known tree and 
the leaves trimmed oflE immediately, leav- 
ing about one-half inch of the stem of the 
leaf for a handle for thebud. These sticks 
should be wrapped in moist cloth imtil 

93 



94 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 



used. It is well to procure special bud- 
ding knives, although any knife with a 
round point can be 
used. 

For 'T" Budding: 
Make a cut through the 
bark about half around 
the tree on the north 
side and about two 
inches from the ground 
with a very sharp 
round-pointed knife 
Make a longitudinal 
cut about one inch 
long, cutting up to 
the horizontal cut 
already made. Open 
slightly the lips with 
the point of the knife, 
or spatula if you 
have one. Cut out a 
bud from the bud stick, putting the knife 
about one-fourth of an inch below the bud, 
taking out the bud with little or no wood. 
Use the handle of the bud to insert it into 




J %mi sTfCH 
% Suds 



the cut already made in the stock. Take 
a piece of damp raffia about six inches loi^ 



A CHEAP, DURABLE BUDDINO KNIPE 

and place the centre of it just below the 
bud. Bring it around back of the stock, 
cross it, and bring it up over the bud, 
crossing it again. Repeat this operation 



TMt: 0^. Bud in3«iM. Bein4«fta^. 

and tie with a single knot on the south 
side. In about ten days this raffia should 
be cut to prevent its girdling the tree. The 
following spring, if the bud is Uving, the 



96 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

stock shotild be cut off just above where 
the bud is inserted, so that the main trunk 
will come from the bud. All other sprouts 
should be removed. 




A COMBINATION BUDDING AND PRUNING KNIFE 



School Garden Bibliography 



CHAPTER VII 

School Garden Bibliography 

Report of the School Garden Session of the American 
Park and Outdoor Art Association, including the 
following papers: "The School Garden as a 
Phase of Industrial Work/' by W. A. Baldwin, 
Principal of tho State Normal School at 
Hyannis, Mass. "Boston Sand Gardens," by 
Miss Ellen M. Tower, of Lexington, Mass. "The 
School Gardens at the School of Horticulture," 
by H. D. Hemenway, Director of the School of 
Hortictdture, Hartford, Conn. "The National 
Cash Register Boys' Gardens," by George A. 
Townsend, Jr., of Dayton, Ohio. "Some Neg- 
lected MilUons," by Mr. Knight, New York City. 
"How We Reach Eighteen Thousand School 
Children in New York," by Professor John W. 
Spencer, of the Bureau of ^Nature-Study at 
Cornell University. 

" Nature - Study for Children," by George F. 
Powell, Director of the School of Horticulture at 
Briar Cliff Manor, New York. 

Address Charles M. Robinson, 65 So. Washing- 
ton St., Rochester, N. Y. Price, 25 cents. 

Report of the Commissioners appointed by the 
Legislature in 1899 to Investigate and Report 
upon the Methods of Procedure in this and 

99 






loo HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

other States and Countries in Giving Instruction 
in Manual Training and in the Theory and Art 
of Agriculture in the Public Schools. L. D. 
Hart, Commissioner, Madison, Wis. 

Hand Book for the Iowa School Edition of 1900, 
pages 175. ''Rtiral School Improvements," 
Richard C. Barrett, Superintendent of Public 
Instruction. 

Report of the Board of Trustees of Public Schools 
of the District of Columbia for 1898-99, Superin- 
tendent of Schools, Washington, D. C. *' Vaca- 
tion Schools," pages 49. 

*' Manual Training in Public Schools." Reprinted 
from a report of the Ontario Educational Asso- 
ciation, 1901, by Professor James W. Robertson, 
Ottawa, Canada. Pages 15 *'The Rural Schools. " 

Annual Report of the Superintendent of Education 
of the Public Schools of Nova Scotia for 1900, 
Halifax, Nova Scotia. ** School Gardens." 
Pages 37. 

Fifty-first Missouri Report of Public Schools, 
W. P. Carrington, State Superintendent, Jefferson 
City, Mo. "Nature-Study." Pages 13a. 

Teachers' Manual for Elementary and High Schools. 
First Edition, 1898. State of Nevada, Carson 
City, J. G. McCartiiy, Superintendent. ** Nature- 
Study." Pages 81. 

Manual of Elementary Course of Study for the Com- 
mon Schools of Wisconsin. L. D. Harvey, State 
Superintendent. " Nature Lessons. " Pages 89. 

'*The Hand Book for Planning and Planting Small 
Home Grotmds," by Warren H. Manning. 
Published by the Stout Manual Training-School* 
Menomonie, Wis. 

Manual of School Law, Nova Scotia, 1901. Com- 



* W 4. ' ^* 



SCHOOL GARDEN BIBLIOGRAPHY lOI 

niittee of Pttblic Works and Mines, Halifax, 
Nova Scotia. Pages 66. 

Pifty-second Annual Report of the Public Schools 
of the City of Worcester, Mass. Superintendent 
of Schools, Worcester, Mass. "Nature-Study 
and Garden Work. " Pages 48. 

"School Gardens at the School of Horticulttire, 
Hartford, Conn." by H. D. Hemenway, 
Director of the School of Horticulture, read 
before Boston Meeting of the American Park 
and Outdoor Art Association. Published in 
Park and Cemetery , September, 1902, 324 Dear- 
bom Street, Chicago, Ills. 

" Boys Trained for Citizenship," published in The 
World To-day, October, 1902. 153-155 LaSalle 
Street, Chicago, Ills. 

"Garden Movement for Schools," by Dick J. 
Crosby, Office of Experiment Stations, U. S. 
Department of Agriculture. Published in The 
World To-day f October, 1902, 153-155 LaSalle 
Street, Chicago, Ills. 

''Farming Industry in the United States," pub- 
lished in The World To-day, September, 1902, 
153-155 LaSalle Street, Chicago, Ills. 

"School Gardening in the Boston Normal School." 
Published in Modem Methods, April, 1902, 
New Eng. Pub. Co., Boston and Chicago. 

"Flower Gardens in Public Schools," by Jessie M. 
Good. Published in "How to Grow Flowers," 
October, 1900; the Floral Publishing Co., Spring- 
field, Ohio. 

''The School Garden, State Normal School, Hyannis, 
Massachusetts," by Bertha Brown. Published 
in Journal of Education, April, 1902. Boston, 
Mass. 



I02 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

"School Gardens/' by Henry Lincoln Clapp, 

Master George Putnam School. Reprinted from 

Education, May, 1901 , Roxbury, Mass. Magazine. 

Also reprinted in pamphlet form. 
"The School Garden," published by State Normal 

School, Hyannis, Mass. Catalogue and Circular. 
"Horticulture Education for Children," by Henry 

Lincoln Clapp, Principal of George Putnam 

School, Roxbury. Transactions of Massachusetts 

Horticultural Society for the year 1890. 
"School Gardens," by Henry Lincoln Clapp. 

Published in Appleton's Science Monthly,** 

February, 1898. 
" A Public School Garden, " by Henry Lincoln Clapp. 

Published in New England Magazine, June, 1902. 
"School Gardens," by Henry Lincoln Clapp. 

Published in Education, May and June, 1902. 
Report of the Committee on School Gardens and 

Children's Herbariums of the Massachusetts 

Horticultural Society, for the year 1900, by 

Henry Lincoln Clapp, Chairman, Boston, Mass. 
"EflEorts of the Pupils of the Public Schools for 

Home and Public Improvement," by Carthage, 

Mo., Public Schools, March i, 1902. 
"Two Foreign Schools and Their Suggestions," by 

Daniel S. Sanford. Published in New England 

Magazine, May, 1902. 1133 Broadway, New 

York City. 
Prizes awarded to the Sunday Post-Despatch 

Gardners. Published in St. Louis Post-Despatch, 

September 28, 1902, St. Lotiis, Mo. 
"The School Garden." Published in the Evening 

Star, October 18, 1902, Washington, D. C. 
"The Child Farmers of New York," by Louise 

Seymour Houghton. Published in Christian 



SCHOOL GARDEN BIBLIOGRAPHY 103 

Work and Evangelist, October 25, 1902. New 
York City. 

"The Country School and the Country Child," by 
O. J. Kem, County Superintendent of Schools, 
Rockford, Ills. Published in School News, 
September, 1902. Taylorville and Chicago, Ills. 

"The Country School and the Country Child," by 
O. J. Kem, County Superintendent of Schools, 
Rockford, Ills. Published in School News, 
October, 1902, Taylorville and Chicago, Ills. 

"The Country School and the Country Child," by 
O. J. Kem, County Superintendent of Schools, 
Rockford, Ills. Published in School News, 
November, 1902. Taylorville and Chicago, Ills. 

"The Country School and the Country Child." 
Winnebago County, Ills., Report. 

Report of a Visit to the Centralized School of Ohio, 
by O. J. Kem, County Superintendent of Schools, 
Rockford, Winnebago County, Ills. 

"School Gardens, Their Development and Func- 
tions," by Dick J. Crosby, Ofl&ce of Experiment 
Stations U. S. Dept. Agriculture. Published in 
Outlook. August, 1902. With references. 

Reports of the Committee on School Gardens and 
Children's Herbariums, of the Massachusetts 
Horticultural Society, for the years 1898, 1899 
and 1901. 

Bulletins Nos. 121, 160 and 205 of the Horticxiltural 
Division of Cornell University, Agriculture Ex- 
periment Station, Ithaca, N. Y. 

National Cash Register Company. Published in 
Outdoor Art and Beautiful House Edition, Jtme, 
1899, Dayton, Ohio. 

Annual Distribution of Prizes for Outdoor Art and 
Landscape Gardening. Published by National 



I04 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL CARDBUS 

Cash Register Company, June, 1909, Dayton, 
Ohio. 

"Home Gardening Association." 190Z, Cleve- 
land, Ohio. Report. 

" A Story of Home Gardens, " by Starr Cadwallader, 
1903, Cleveland, Ohio. Pamphlet. 

"How to Beautify Carthage," by L. £. Archias 
Seed Company, 11 3-1 15 Main Street, Carthage, 
Mo. Pamphlet. 

"The National Cash Register Company." Pub- 
lished in Social Service for January, 190a. 
Published at aS; Fourth Avenue, New York City. 

Reports issued by the National Cash Register 
Company, of Dayton, Ohio. 

"Report, Rules and Regtdations adopted by the 
Park Commission, Dayton, Ohio, also Hints, 
Suggestions on Street and Decorative Planting, 
Maintenance of Trees, Shrubs, Lawns, etc," 1901. 

"The Whittier School Garden." Published in 
Tke Southern Workman of November, 1902. 
Published by Hampton Institute Press. 

"Hampton Nature-Study Leaflet No. 7." Pub- 
lished by Hampton Institute Press, Hampton, 
Va. 

"Suggestions for Progressive and Correlative 
Nature-Study," by G. M. Carver, Tuskegee 
Normal and Industrial Institute, Tuskegee, 
Ala. 

Report for 1901 of "Home Gardening Association," 
Cleveland, Ohio, by E. W. Haines, President. 

Bulletins Nos. 63 and 71 of the Department of 
Agrictilttire of State of Pennsylvania. 

Government Reports: Chapter XX. — " School Gar- 
dens ^U. S. Bureau of Education for 1898 and 
1899. 



SCHOOL GARDEN BIBLIOGRAPHY 105 

Chapter XXXIV.— Extracts from Consular Re- 
port, U. S. Bureau of Education, 1899. Pam- 
phlet. 

Chapter XXVII. — Consular Reports, U. S. Bu- 
reau of Education, 1901. Pamphlet. 
Chapter XV. — "Public Playgrotmds and Va- 
cation Schools," U. S. Bureau of Education, 
1 90 1. Pamphlet. 

Chapter XXXIII. — "Methods of Instruction in 
Agriculttire. " U. S. Btu'eau of Education, 

1899. Pamphlet. 

Chapter VI. — " Education in Central Europe," 
U. S. Bureau of Education, 1899. Pamphlet. 
"School Gardens," by U. S. Bureau of Education, 

1900. Washington, D. C. Bulletin. 

"The Physician's Influence in Vacation Schools," 
by Helen C. Putnam, M. D. Reprinted from the 
Bulletin of the American Academy of Medicine, 
October, 1900. Pamphlet. 

"School Gardens in Cities," by Helen C. Putnam, 
M. D. Lecture given before the Rhode Island 
Normal School, April i, 1902. Providence, 
R. I. Pamphlet. 

"Agricultural and Rural Life in Public Schools," 
by Willet M. Hays, Professor of Agrictdture, 
University of Minnesota, 1901. St. Anthony 
Park, Minn. Bulletin. 

"School Gardens,* by F. M. Powell, M. D.. Glen- 
wood, Iowa. Read at the Iowa State Horticul- 
tural Society, Des Moines, Iowa, December 14, 
1899. Report. 

"Farming in the City." Philadelphia Vacant Lot 
Cultivation Association, Philadelphia, Pa., 

1 90 1. Report. 

"Self-Help for Those Who Can't Work in the 



<4 



(« 



1 06 HOW TO MAKE SCHOOL GARDENS 

Usual Business. " Philadelphia Vacant Lot Cul- 
tivation Association, Philadelphia, Pa., 1901. 
Report. 

Second Annual Report of the Vacation School 
Committee, Hartford, Conn., 1902. 

** Beautifjring School Yards." Country Life in 
America^ April, 1902, New York City. 
Preparing School Gardens. '* Home and Flowers, 
January 1903, Springfield, Ohio. 
A Model Township Conducted by Canadian Boys. " 
The Seattle Post Intelligencer ^ October 5, 1902. 

"Training for Citizenship." Published in Educa- 
tional Jotimal of Western Canada, December, 
1902. Victoria, B. C. 

"School Gardens in Rochester, New York," 
Country Life in America, April, 1902. Double- 
day, Page & Company, 34 Union Square, East, 
New York City. 

"The Planting of School Grounds," in Country 
Life in America, April, 1902. Published by 
Doubleday, Page & Company, 34 Union Square, 
East, New York. 

"School Gardens." Country Life in America, 
March, 1903. 

"A Successful School Garden," Country Life in 
America, March, 1903. 

" School Gardens (Department of Agriculture work) , 
January 4, 1903. The Washington Times, 
Washington, D. C. 

Report for 1902. The Home Garden Association, 
Cleveland, Ohio. 

School News, Taylorville, Ills. Nearly every 
issue contains subjects on school gardens. 

"School Gardens," by F. M. Powell, M. D., Supt. 



SCHOOL GARDEN BIBLIOGRAPHY I07 

Iowa Institution for Feeble-Minded Children, 
Glenwood, Iowa. Pamphlet, 1902. 

A " Children's Farm" in New York. The Alumni 
Association of the Philadelphia Normal School. 
Association Letter for October, 1902 , pages 7. 

Second Annual Report of the School of Horti- 
culture, Hartford, Conn.